Support Millions of Users

Competing with businesses such as eBay, Uber, AirBnB, and Facebook, require blockchain technology capable of handling tens of millions of active daily users. In certain cases, an application may not work unless a critical mass of users is reached and therefore a platform that can handle very large numbers of users is paramount.

Through horizontal scaling, EOSIO will enable the network capable of supporting millions of users on high performing applications.

Free Usage

Traditionally, it is the business that pays for office space, computational power, and other costs required to run the business. The customer buys specific products from the business and the revenue from those product sales is used to cover the business costs of operation. Similarly, no website obligates its visitors to make micropayments for visiting its website to cover hosting costs.

Application developers need the flexibility to offer users free services; users should not have to pay in order to use the platform or benefit from its services. A blockchain platform that is free to use for users will likely gain more widespread adoption. Developers and businesses can then create effective monetization strategies.

A launched blockchain that uses the EOSIO software does not require its users to pay the blockchain directly for its use and therefore does not constrain or prevent a business from determining its own monetization strategy for its products.

While it is true that the receiver can pay, EOSIO enables the sender to pay for bandwidth, computation, and storage. This empowers application developers to pick the method that is best for their application. In many cases sender-pays significantly reduces complexity for application developers who do not want to implement their own rationing system. Application developers can delegate bandwidth and computation to their users and then let the “sender pays” model enforce the usage. From the perspective of the end user it is free, but from the perspective of the blockchain it is sender-pays.

Easy Upgrades and Bug Recovery

Businesses building blockchain-based applications need the flexibility to enhance their applications with new features. The platform must support software and smart contract upgrades.

All non-trivial software is subject to bugs, even with the most rigorous of formal verification. The platform must be robust enough to fix bugs when they inevitably occur.

When all else fails and an "unstoppable application" acts in an unpredictable manner, a blockchain using the EOSIO software allows the block producers to replace the account's code without hard forking the entire blockchain. Similar to the process of freezing an account, this replacement of the code requires a 15/21 vote of elected block producers.

Low Latency

A good user experience demands reliable feedback with a delay of no more than a few seconds. Longer delays frustrate users and make applications built on a blockchain less competitive with existing non-blockchain alternatives. The platform should support low latency of transactions.

With sub-second blocks production, EOSIO minimizes the latency of the transactions and drastically improves the users' experience of the applications built on top of it.

Sequential Performance

There are some applications that just cannot be implemented with parallel algorithms due to sequentially dependent steps. Applications such as exchanges need enough sequential performance to handle high volumes.

EOSIO is built to support fast sequential performance meeting the requirements of high-performance applications.

Human-readable account name

The EOSIO software permits all accounts to be referenced by a unique human-readable name of up to 12 characters in length. The name is chosen by the creator of the account.


The EOSIO software enables blockchains to establish peer-to-peer terms of service agreement or a binding contract among those users who sign it, referred to as a "constitution". The content of this constitution defines obligations among the users which cannot be entirely enforced by code and facilitates dispute resolution by establishing jurisdiction and choice of law along with other mutually accepted rules. Every transaction broadcast on the network must incorporate the hash of the constitution as part of the signature and thereby explicitly binds the signer to the contract.

The constitution also defines the human-readable intent of the source code protocol. This intent is used to identify the difference between a bug and a feature when errors occur and guide the community on what fixes are proper or improper.

Inter Blockchain Communication

EOS.IO software is designed to facilitate inter-blockchain communication. This is achieved by making it easy to generate proof of Action existence and proof of Action sequence. These proofs combined with an application architecture designed around Action passing enables the details of inter-blockchain communication and proof validation to be hidden from application developers, enabling high level abstractions to be presented to developers.